Oculoplasty Services


What is Squint (STRABISMUS)?

strabismus

Squint ,in layman language means the deviating eye, is a visual defect in which eyes are not in alignment and point in different directions. One eye may look straight ahead, while the other eye may turn inward, outward, upward or downward.


Causes

The exact cause of strabismus is not fully understood. Six eye muscles, controlling the eye movement, are attached to the outside of each eye. In each eye, two muscles function to move the eye right or left. The other four muscles move it up or down or at an angle. Strabismus is especially common among children with disorders that affect the brain such as:
1.Cerebral palsy
2.Down syndrome
3.Hydrocephalus,and
4.Brain tumors.


Ptosis

Ptosis is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. The drooping may be worse after being awake longer when the individual's muscles are tired but that term normally refers to the condition amblyopia. If severe enough and left untreated, the drooping eyelid can cause other conditions, such as amblyopia or astigmatism. This is why it is especially important for this disorder to be treated in children at a young age, before it can interfere with vision development.



ptosis

Causes

Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply.It can affect one eye or both eyes and is more common in the elderly, as muscles in the eyelids may begin to deteriorate. One can, however, be born with ptosis. Congenital ptosis is hereditary in three main forms.[1] Causes of congenital ptosis remain unknown. Ptosis may be caused by damage to the muscle which raises the eyelid, damage to the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion or damage to the nerve which controls this muscle. Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumorand diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Exposure to the toxins in some snake venoms, such as that of the cobra, may also cause this effect.


DCR & DCT

Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery is a procedure that aims to eliminate fluid and mucus retention within the lacrimal sac, and to increase tear drainage for relief of epiphora (water running down the face). A DCR procedure involves removal of bone adjacent to the nasolacrimal sac and incorporating the lacrimal sac with the lateral nasal mucosa in order to bypass the nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This allows tears to drain directly into the nasal cavity from the canaliculi via a new low-resistance pathway.

 Dct

DCT(Dacryocystectomy):

Removal of total sac in cases where DCR can not be performed.


Causes

Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) can result in a watery eye, due to obstruction of the outflow of tears.



Lid tumors & Lid Reconstruction

Lid tumors

Tumors of the eyelids may be benign cysts, inflammations (styes), or malignant tumors (skin cancers). The most common type of eyelid cancer is basal cell carcinoma. Most basal cell carcinomas can be removed with surgery. If left untreated, these tumors can grow around the eye and into the orbit, sinuses and brain. Other eyelid cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Together, these tumors make up the remaining 10% of eyelid malignancies.
Malignant tumors are completely removed and the eyelid is repaired using plastic surgery techniques. Additional cryotherapy (freezing-therapy) and radiation are sometimes required after surgery.

Lid tumors

Lid Reconstruction

Lid Reconstruction

Eyelids are complex structures and pose a challenge for reconstruction. They play an important role in protecting the globe from trauma, excessive light, and in maintaining the integrity of tear films and moving the tears toward the lacrimal drainage system. The beauty and expression to the eye is given by the lids and muscles in it. Upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. To undertake the reconstruction of the eyelids, it is very important to understand few basic anatomical features of the eyelids.